(for maximizing health & longevity)
takes a toll on us all. There is abundant fossil evidence of arthritic-like
conditions in some dinosaurs. Sharks, rats, humans and other species get
cancer. But by and large, most nonhuman mammals are spared high blood
pressure, heart disease, diabetes, obesity, and similar conditions
collectively referred to as "the diseases of civilization." (See U.S.
Health Statistics – follows this chapter) Why? Is it because
they do not live as long as humans? Not necessarily, as some species are
relatively long-lived. Some species of tortoises can live nearly two hundreds
of years, as do some fish. But they are not genetically close to us. What of
our evolutionary cousins and siblings?
In the wild, chimpanzees
live to on average about 35-40 years. This lifespan matched or exceeded that
of our forbearers for countless millennia, but was surpassed by humans during
the past 60 years or so. This, most scientists concede, is attributable to
improved nutrition and disease prevention and treatment. So it would seem
that we are doing better than our evolutionary relatives on the whole. But
are we really?
Let’s turn this question around. Do hypertension, heart disease, diabetes,
and other chronic conditions appear in chimpanzees that reach middle age and
advanced old age?
While some diseases such as cancer do
occur in ageing chimps, the rates appear to be far lower than one would
expect if just the ageing process alone were the culprit. All things
considered the “diseases of civilization” occur at remarkably low rates in
our aged evolutionary relatives. The “why” behind this health discrepancy
between chimps and humans should, in all probability, hold the key to our
collective quest for maximal health and longevity.
In chimps and other nonhuman animals, diet and physical activity patterns are
basically in harmony with each species evolved nature. In short, taking our
evolutionary siblings as an example, chimpanzees eat and engage in patterns
of physical exertion that are consistent with very ancient and entrenched
patterns. Humans, on the other hand,
have deviated greatly from the dietary and health-conducive physical activity
that characterized our particular branch of the primate family tree for
hundreds of thousands of years.
During the course of the past forty years or so evidence has steadily accrued
indicating that humans achieve and maintain optimal health on a diet that
consists largely of protein, specific complex carbohydrates, and certain
fats. Indeed, the dietary pattern that anthropologists and various nutrition
experts have found is most consonant with our evolved nature is one referred
to as “Paleolithic” or “Old Stone Age.” It is one few people in the West follow today. And it is this mismatch
between our ancient metabolic machinery and relatively recent dietary
patterns, i.e., food intake patterns that rose during the last 10,000 years
(Neolithic or “New Stone Age” to present) that many experts feel underlies
the rise and proliferation of many chronic diseases.
But aren’t we living longer and healthier?
At the turn of the last century, the average American woman could expect to
live to be about 51 years of age. The average man could expect to blow out at
least 48 candles on his cake before being visited by the Grim Reaper.
By 1998 these averages had grown considerably. Women can now expect to live
to be 80 years old, and men 74 years old (CDC statistics, 2002).
According to government public health sources, these gains in the American
life span are the result, at least in part, of reductions in infant
mortality, infectious diseases among infants and children, and such basic
public health measures as safer drinking water, widespread vaccination
programs, better nutrition, and an improved standard of living. Other players
include improved screening and treatment of certain cancers, declines in
tobacco use among adults, and improvements in the medical management of many
We are indisputably living longer. But -- and this is a big BUT -- there is
plenty of room for improvement.
Americans are on-the-whole overweight and out-of-shape. Researchers have
linked obesity and a lack of exercise to the development of adult onset
diabetes, heart disease, many forms of cancers, and to high blood pressure.
Today, heart disease, cancer and stroke are the leading causes of death among
adults in the United States. These are the Diseases of civilization -- diseases whose development and
course are, many scientists tell us, slowed or otherwise beneficially
impacted by dietary, nutritional, and exercise factors.
So yes, we really do need to enhance our dietary, nutritional, and
exercise patterns in the USA.
This brings us to the question of the mechanics of change.
We read almost daily newspaper articles on
the health benefits of specific foods, beverages, fitness pursuits, and such.
And yet, swimming in information though we are, the polls indicate that maybe
only about 3% of Americans actually act on what they know.
Is this attributable to laziness or simply information overload or both? Or
maybe it is that other concerns crowd out doing what we know is best.
Grabbing a burger at a corner fast food place makes it possible to eat and
get back to work in 30 minutes time. Or maybe we have just come to expect
instant answers in what has become an age of instant foods, instant online
access to information, and instant gratification.
Then, too, we are by-and-large inveterate gamblers insofar as we have a
tendency to think the guy down the street will not get away with his or her
unhealthy lifestyle choices, but we will.
If you think in terms of your own life, you probably see many of these
factors at play. Human nature being what it is, most of us prefer
convenience, speed, and comfort over working at staying well and fit.
In light of this, a compromise of sorts would seem in order; which is to say,
we need to zero in on simple, relatively easy to make changes that will help
us maximize our health and quality of life. But do such simple but effective
• Simple changes that confer rich health dividends
Medical researchers are increasingly finding that significant health benefits
including disease prevention result from relatively simple dietary and
nutritional changes combined with low time investment, low impact physical
Let’s take a look at a few you can readily
and easily introduce into your particular lifestyle.
The western diet is by-and-large too high
in fat. And with cause: We humans like, yes even crave fat. Sugary
things too. This ancient pattern is wired into our brains. In a word, early
people needed energy to stay healthy and survive. Fats and sugars are to us
what Ever Ready™ batteries are to the perpetual motion bunny on TV.
We are, according to many anthropologists, modern folk running about with
"Stone Age” brains. We are adapted to seek out fatty foods and sweet
stuff, and it is a preference, a deep-seated craving if you will, that isn't
easily surmounted or tamed.
And perhaps it shouldn't be. Consider:
In a study carried out involving people on the tropical island of Kitava in Papua New Guinea, researchers surveyed 2300
natives aged 20-96 with respect to heart disease patterns (1.)
The Kitavans are
a so-called "primitive" people who get a lot of their daily
calories from fat. In a nutshell, the scientists found that sudden cardiac
death and stroke were extremely rare in Kitavans.
All the adults surveyed had blood pressure readings lower than average
westerners, and were relatively thin. Interestingly, serum cholesterol was a
little high, probably due to the Kitavans high
intake of saturated fat from coconuts.
The diet of the Kitavans, you ask? They eat mainly
tubers, fruit, fish and coconuts, with little western food or alcohol.
Saturated fat intake from coconut was high, as was their intake of omega 3
polyunsaturated fatty acids, soluble fiber, and minerals. Salt intake was
quite low compared to levels in the West.
As for physical activity, the Kitavans were found
to be slightly more physically active than sedentary western populations.
Eighty per cent of both sexes were daily smokers. Other published research
underscores what was seen in the Kitavans.
So does fat play a role in the genesis of heart disease or not?
Here we have a population eating a lot of fat, smoking, and being only
slightly more active than we westerners, and they are thinner, have a lower
average resting blood pressure than most of us, and virtually no heart
disease. So what's protecting the Kitavans? What
are they doing that we in the U.S. and elsewhere are not?
Well, while there is as of yet no clear consensus among scientists, there is
sufficient evidence to indicate that the kind of fats consumed is a
key player in the development heart disease. In a word, Westerners eat too much
of the artery-clogging fats like trans fatty acids -- the "bad" fat
in stick margarine -- as well as saturated fat.
But wait a minute, the Kitavans eat lots of
saturated fat, have higher serum cholesterol levels than most Westerners, and
yet have almost no cardiovascular disease. What gives?
The verdict isn't in, but the protective factor appears to be the high levels
of omega-3 fatty acids in the "Stone Age" diet of the Kitavans. This is the main fat in cold water fish that
has been shown to protect people from developing blood vessel blockage.
So why isn't the Kitavan's smoking wrecking havoc
in their arteries? Again, the answer appears to lie in the amounts of omega-3
fatty acid-rich food the Kitavans consume daily.
These fatty acids protect cell membranes from incurring the sort of damage
that appears to favor the development of heart disease and even some cancers.
In Japan, where 59% of men smoke, ..that's right, a
whopping 59% according to CDC statistics published during 1996,......lung
cancer rates are lower than what one would expect. Many epidemiologists and
other researchers feel that the Japanese penchant for eating lots of omega-3
rich suchi, sushimi, and
such underlies this trend.
No, this is not to say that it is OK to smoke. Smokers consuming high levels
of omega-3 fatty acids still get Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease,
e.g., emphysema and lung cancer.
What this body of evidence suggests in terms of fleshing out a "balanced
diet" is this: When the daily fat bug bites, satiate it with the health
protective fats. Instead of gobbling down foods rich in saturated or trans
fatty acids, make a practice of eating omega-3 rich fish such as lake trout,
tuna, and salmon, and monounsaturated fat-rich foods such as olives,
flaxseed, and peanut oils, and avocados.
Peanuts, walnuts, and wheat germ are good sources of omega-3 rich fatty
acids, by the way.
If you do not happen to favor fish, omega-3 rich fish oil capsules can be
found at most health food stores and even many pharmacies. Please note that
diabetics and people on blood thinners should discuss fish oil supplements
with a physician, as they can exacerbate or complicate these conditions.
• What exactly is a balanced diet?
The term “a balanced diet” was mentioned above. So what goes into making a
balanced diet? And what exactly is a balanced diet anyway?
Briefly, a balanced diet is one in which you eat a varied enough intake of
foods to furnish your body with the vitamins and minerals it needs to avoid
deficiencies of same, as well as prevent certain chronic diseases like adult
onset diabetes and heart disease. Dietary needs vary according to life stage,
your lifestyle, and particular health pedigree, so to speak.
The experts suggest that we select food from 5 major food groups each day.
Breads, cereals, rice, and pasta
Milk, yogurt, and cheese
Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs, and nuts.
Since breads, cereals, rice, pasta, beans, milk, yogurt, and cheese were
introduced into the human diet during the past 10,000 years or so, some
anthropologists and health care professionals feel that we are not really
adapted to consuming them. Our metabolic machinery, if you will, is much
older and is geared to thrive on a diet high in protein, low in sodium but
high in potassium, and high in fruit and certain vegetables.
There is a growing body of evidence which indicates that a balanced diet lies
in adopting a paleolithic or so-called "Stone
Age" diet. Proponents point to the fact that many of the more recent
dietary add on such as wheat, beans, and milk evoke allergic reactions in
many people. Milk proteins have been implicated in the onset of juvenile
On the other hand, peoples who eat a
so-called "primitive diet", one high in protein, complex
carbohydrates such as potassium rich fruit, but low or devoid of beans,
potatoes, rice, cereals, and milk, typically have few of the chronic diseases
that plague Western societies. Interestingly, this kind of "primitive
diet" is high in the powerful antioxidant compound alpha lipoic acid, as well as those B-vitamins that reduce
elevated homocysteine levels (Homocysteine
is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is produced during normal metabolic
activity in the body and which, in high enough amounts, contributes to the
development of cardiovascular disease.)
All in all, while still controversial, it does make sense that a diet
consistent with our evolved nature is probably going to produce more health
benefits than a diet at odds with this nature. Recent scientific studies
appear to be bearing this out. For example, in a 14-year study involving more
than 80,000 women, scientists at Harvard Medical School discovered that women
with the highest protein intakes were 26 percent less likely than those who
ate the least protein to develop ischemic heart disease (IHD) (3.)
More importantly, protein-rich diets
benefited these women regardless of their fat intake.
There are also studies that indicate that
people who have the highest intakes of vitamin K2 have lower rates of
arteriosclerosis (Hardening of the arteries). This is owed to the fact that
isomers or forms of vitamin K2 such as menaquinone-7 in Vitamin K2 rich foods
such as the Japanese fermented soybean food called natto
help shuttle calcium from blood vessels and other soft tissues to bone where
it belongs! Health Benefits of Vitamin K2
In addition to dietary sources of K2,
there are now supplements available that contain menaquinone-7. A simple
Google search will turn them up.
Until a consensus emerges from all the studies, it is probably wise to give
credence to the government's dietary guidelines. However, in line with the
evidence discussed in this article, we should strive to include lots of
choices rich in omega-3 fatty acids (4.)
• Herbs that may help keep disease at bay
In light of the fact that the leading causes of death in adults are heart
disease, cancer, and stroke, we will consider some
herbs and herbal blends that will likely prevent or otherwise impact these
conditions. Of course, as was true of the suggestion that folks eat more
omega-3 rich fish, the herbs introduced will for the most part involve simple
additions to your basic dietary and supplement use patterns.
Heart Disease (Arterial Blockage), Hypertension & Stroke
The first thing we will briefly look at is common herbs and one herbal blend
(Heartrol™) that impact the players in artery
disease, especially vessel blockage with plague. Since plague-narrowed
arteries can lead to hypertension, heart attack, and stroke, we will so to
speak, be knocking off 3 bad birds with one herbal volley!
The first herb we will consider is cayenne, also known as hot red pepper.
Several scientific studies have been carried out in which it was found that
cayenne lowers artery-clogging cholesterol and triglycerides.
In Thailand, medical researchers took particular note of the fact that people
who consume fairly large quantities of cayenne or hot red pepper have a lower
incidence of potentially dangerous blood clots (called thromoembolisms).
Intrigued, the scientists surveyed medical records of people in countries
where hot spicy foods are regularly consumed, and found that folks who eat a
diet high in cayenne have a much lower incidence of blood clotting diseases
This is logical given the fact that cayenne contains compounds that have fibrinolytic activity, meaning they are able to break up
Working cayenne into one's diet is, of course, relatively easy. Just begin
seasoning food with cayenne. Some cayenne-savvy folks carry a small bottle of
hot red pepper with them to work and even to restaurants, and just sprinkle
it on various foods during the course of their day.
Supermarkets carry plenty of foods laced with hot red pepper, and it is
fairly easy to locate a Mexican restaurant in most metropolitan cities
throughout the world.
Garlic may also help fight arterial blockage in many ways. Various studies
have found that garlic does such things as protect against free radicals,
reduce the tendency of the blood to clot, and possibly lower both blood
pressure and cholesterol levels. In at least one published study, garlic was
found to raise patient levels of the artery protective lipid, HDL -- High
Density Lipoproteins (6.)
The yellow spice Tumeric, used in curry dishes, has
also shown effectiveness in terms of lowering cholesterol.
While you are relishing that hot red pepper, garlic, and tumeric
dish, you will no doubt want or actually need something to wash down
your spicy load. This brings us to the 2nd easily introduced dietary measure
to help prevent or retard arterial blockage: Tea.
Black, white and green teas contain compounds called polyphenols
that lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, as well as flavinoids that prevent the artery-blocking cholesterol,
LDL, from undergoing significant oxidation. If you are not acquainted with
oxidation, leave a pat of butter out at room temperature for a few weeks. It
will go rancid due to the oxidation process.
During 1989, “yours truly” carried out a pilot medical study involving the
effects of a Chinese black tea variety called Yunnan Tuocha on patients with high serum cholesterol
levels (I carried out this study at a major integrative medical clinic on the
west coast on as a favor to Mr. Sunny Wong, the Founder and President of PCT
Company, a major supplier of organic, pesticide free Chinese teas and herbal
formulas. This simple study was not funded by PCT Co. but, rather, was
carried out to establish where the doctors at this clinic should rely on the
tea as a means of helping their patients manage their serum cholesterol). The
participants in the study drank one cup of the tea with meals and did not
change their diet or lifestyle at all. Age-, sex and health matched people
who did not consume tea in any form served as a control group. At the end of
one month it was found that those who consistently drank the tea experienced
an average drop in total cholesterol of 19.33% after one month. The controls
did not experience any significant changes in serum cholesterol.
P.C. Teas Company of Burlingame,
California remains one of the very finest sources of organic Yunnan Tuocha tea here in North America: Ling Chi Tuocoa
P. C. Teas Company
One note of warning: If you are taking an MAO inhibitor, the caffeine in
green tea could cause problems. Also, if you are taking a blood-thinning drug
such as warfarin, please be advised that large
amounts of green tea could interfere with its effectiveness, because green
tea contains vitamin K, which directly counteracts warfarin's
And last, but by no means least, is an
herbal formula called Heartrol™ from Tibet that has
been shown to significantly lower cholesterol, triglycerides and other
players in heart disease in at least five randomized double-blind, placebo
controlled studies carried out in Europe. This herbal drug has, in fact, been
approved in Switzerland by the Swiss equivalent of the FDA for the treatment
of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). It also prevents clots from
forming not unlike aspirin, but without aspirin’s side effecst
such as erosion of the gastric lining and development of ringing in the ears
in some folks with prolonged use. To learn more check out his website: HEARTROL BENEFITS
A lot of very compelling research being done on foods and herbs that are
known as "chemopreventative compounds";,
i.e., food and supplement items that prevent cancer. Among the more promising
are green tea, Karawatake and possibly reischi mushrooms, ginseng, garlic and soy. We will take
a cursory look at green tea, ginseng, and garlic.
Green tea, as most of your probably know, is one of the most popular
beverages in Asia, where it has been used as a medical purposes and disease
prevention for over 4,000 years. Many researchers feel that green tea
contributes to the relatively low incidence of stomach cancer in certain
areas of Japan.
The most bioactive compound in green tea is called epigallocatechin
gallate or EGCG, which has been found to inhibit
cancer development. During 1992, a study was published in which medical
scientists reported that EGCG inhibits the "promotion stage" of
chemical carcinogenesis in the liver.
The consensus among many scientists is that green tea, or more specifically
EGCG, is a potent cancer prevention agent.
A recent observational study on ginseng indicates it may exert a chemopreventative effect. The study in question was
carried out in South Korea and involved keeping track of 4,587 men and women
aged 39 years and older from 1987 to 1991. People who regularly used or rank Panax ginseng were compared with
individuals matched in terms of sex, age, .alcohol use, smoking, education
and economic status who did not use ginseng (7.)
The results were impressive. Those who used ginseng showed a 60% decrease in
However, it should be noted that a great deal of controversy surrounds this
study. For one thing, it was reported that persons who used ginseng less than
three times per year experienced a 54% reduction in risk. It seems unlikely
that occasional use of ginseng could reduce cancer mortality by more than
half! Even so, this study may point to some "smoke in the
woodpile". Given that ginseng has shown immune boosting properties in
many studies, its use as a cancer prevention tool seems warranted.
Garlic is another ancient herb that looks promising as a chemopreventative
agent. Allicin, the principal active chemical
ingredient in garlic, boasts a number of benefits, including cancer
prevention. In a July 1997 press release from the Mercy Cancer Institute of
Pittsburgh, laboratory tests indicated that garlic could help to slow the
growth of tumors, as well as inhibit their formation in the bladder and
breast. A West Virginia University study found that oral application of allium sativum
inhibited the growth of tumors and reduced mortality in lab mice with bladder
cancer. It should be pointed out that garlic compounds have also shown antimutagenic properties, which means it protects cells
from incurring genetic changes that set the stage for cancer. Many scientists
feel that specific sulfur compounds in garlic both inhibit cancer and
suppress tumor cells. Supportive evidence of this comes from the Shandong
Province in China, where stomach cancer morality
risk was found to be 13 times lower in those folks who ingested 20 grams of
garlic daily than in those who consumed only one gram daily.
Working green tea, ginseng, and garlic into the average person's diet is
relatively easy and inexpensive. Green tea and ginseng are widely available
in tea bag, powder, and tea bag forms. Garlic can be found in grocery stores
Humankind evolved in an environment where physical agility, stamina, and
fitness paid rich dividends in terms of survival and leaving behind viable
offspring. Accordingly, physical exercise would be expected to have a
positive impact on both our physical health and even mood -- and it does. For
example, intense activity along the lines of aerobic exercise has been found
to improve the cardiovascular system, muscle strength and flexibility. It
also tends to increase artery size and elasticity, prevent plague build-up in
circulatory vessels, and prevent blood clots. Regular exercise has been shown
to boost HDL (good) cholesterol levels, and lower both total cholesterol and
blood pressure. The lungs, too, benefit insofar as physical exertion and
exercise enhance ability to breathe deeply, easily and efficiently. Exercise
burns fat and often alleviates stress.
According to experts, one should engage in vigorous activity such as fast
walking, bicycling, jogging, swimming or doing aerobic exercises for at least
30 minutes, three times weekly. For those over 35 years of age, as well as
those have been sedentary for a long time who have (or suspect they might
have) a medical condition, it would be wise to consult a physician concerning
the kinds of exercise that will not compromise one's health.
Exercise need not be regimented or ritualized, although many folks probably
do better on a program that requires adherence to a routine. In light of the
fact that health benefits have been documented from low impact activities
like just walking 30 minutes or so per week (Recall the Kitavans!),
many “vehicle-dependent” folks would do well to park their machines and take
to foot. In Japan, daily physical exertion is part of life. Most people, for
example, use trains to get to and from work or school, which requires
negotiating stairs and train platforms. This consistent, moderate physical
activity may be part of the reason the Japanese have the longest life span in
the world (82 years for men, 84 years for women). In the U.S., where cars are
virtually considered a necessity, physically taxing activity is minimized and
a great many wind up proverbial couch potatoes. Turning the tables need not
involve grueling, boringly repetitive exercise but, rather, may be as simple
as doing by choice what the Japanese do by “design”: Walk, climb, and move
• Concluding Remarks
People today are generally living longer, but many are struggling with
chronic illnesses and health challenges such as cardiovascular disease and
adult onset diabetes. The diseases
of civilization. Many are linked to the wear and tear associated
with a long life, while unhealthy dietary choices, a lack of exercise,
stress, and a multitude of other players give rise to or contribute to
others. As you’ve read, a growing body of scientific evidence indicates that
people in societies where diet and exercise patterns mirror those of our
“Stone Age” ancestors have few, if any of these maladies. This strongly
suggests that we can circumvent or ameliorate many of them by simply bringing
our lifestyles into harmony with our evolved nature.
Readers interested in learning more about the “Stone Age” diet are urged to
acquire and peruse Dr. Loren Cordain’s excellent
book, “The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get Healthy
by Eating the Food You Were Designed to Eat.” Also recommended is “The Paleo Diet web site”, which sports a wealth of material,
both popular and scientific: Paleodiet Home Page
Recommended Supplemental Reading
Online article: Cave Men Diets Offer Insights To Today's Health
Problems, Study Shows, 2/5/2002, Science
Daily - Cave Man Diet
Book: “The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get
Healthy by Eating the Food You Were Designed to Eat” by Loren Cordain, Ph.D.
Shameless book plug: I also
discuss the Paleodiet in “Health Benefits of Vitamin K2” (coauthored with
Larry M. Howard)
Website: K2 BOOK
U. S. Health Statistics
Leading Causes of Death
(All figures are for U.S.)
Final 2000 data
Ten Leading Causes of Death in the U.S.
Heart Disease: 710,760
Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease: 122,009
Alzheimer's Disease: 49,558
Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis: 37,251
Source: National Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 50, No. 16
(All figures are for U.S.)
Deaths Annually: 69,301 (2000)
Age-Adjusted Death Rate: 25.2 deaths per 100,000 population (2000)
Cause of Death Rank: 6 (2000)
Source: National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 50, No. 16
Number of Americans With Diabetes: 10 million (1997)
Source: Vital and Health Statistics Series 10, No. 205
(All figures are for U.S.)
Deaths Annually: 709,894 (2000)
Age-Adjusted Death Rate: 257.9 deaths per 100,000 population (2000)
Cause of Death Rank: 1 (2000)
Source: National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol. 49, No. 12
(All figures are for U.S.)
Percent of Americans Ages 20-74 With Hypertension: 23% (1988-94)
Hypertension Is Most Prevalent in the Black Population
Over Three-Quarters of Women Aged 75 and Over Have Hypertension
Sixty-four Percent of Men Aged 75 and Over Have Hypertension
Source: Health, United States, 2002 Table 68
Deaths Annually: 17,964 (2000)
Death Rate: 6.5 deaths per 100,000 population (2000)
Source: National Vital Statistics Reports, Vol.49, No. 12
(All figures are for U.S.)
Sixty-four percent of U.S. Adults are overweight or obese. (1999-2000)
Twenty-three percent of U.S. Adults are obese (BMI greater than or equal to
Percent of Adolescents (ages 12-19) Who Are Overweight: 15% (1999-2000)
Percent of Children (ages 6-11) Who Are Overweight: 15% (1999-2000)
Source: Health-E Stat
Source for statistics and facts in this table:
CDC - National Center for Health Statistics
CDC Health Statistics
S. Apparent absence of cerebrocardiovascular
disease in Melanesians. Risk factors and nutritional considerations - the Kitava Study [M.D. Ph.D.]. University of Lund, 1994. (Go
to: “On the Benefits of Ancient Diets”, http://www.paleodiet.com/lindeberg/)
(2.)Monetini L, Cavallo MG, Manfrini S, Stefanini L, Picarelli A, Di Tola M, Petrone A, Bianchi M,
La Presa M, Di Giulio C, Baroni MG, Thorpe R, Walker BK, IMDIAB Group, Pozzilli P., ‘Antibodies to bovine Beta-casein in
diabetes and other autoimmune diseases,’ Horm Metab Res 2002 Aug;34(8):455-9.
(3.) Hu, Frank
B., et. al., "Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in
American women." Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70 No. 2, 221-227,
Paul et al. “The n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic
acid and docosahexaenoic acid increase systemic
arterial compliance in humans.” Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:326-30.
S, Poolsuppasit S, Pibolnukarintr
O, et. al. “The relationship between high fibrinolytic
activity and daily capsicum ingestion in Thais.” Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;35:1452-1458.
(6.) Silagy C,
Neil A. Garlic as a lipid lowering agent: a meta-analysis. J Royal Coll Phys London 1994; 28(1): 39-45.
(7.) Int J Epidemiol. 1998. 27.
article © 2009 by Dr. Anthony G. Payne. All rights reserved.